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【海產中的天然毒素】

【首次營養師飲食諮詢及醫療級身體成份分析】


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【海產中的天然毒素】

常聽說海產,尤其貝類含有毒素,到底是從何而來?其他海產亦含有毒素嗎?


雙殼貝類作為濾食性生物,以浮游微藻類為主要食物 ,因而成為積累天然藻類毒素的媒介,這些貝類包括蜆、青口、蠔及扇貝等。此外,雪卡毒素通過海洋食物鏈於生物體內層層積聚,草食性的魚類吃下依附於珊瑚礁上的有海洋浮游生物,體型較大的肉食性魚類吃下這些含有毒素的魚類,毒素便成了人類的腹中之物。

很大比例製造組胺的細菌都屬剛捕獲的魚皮、鰓及腸內天然微生物菌羣的一部分,此細菌於繁殖時分泌出組胺酸脫羧酶,把天然存在於魚類中的組胺酸轉化為組織胺,其含量視乎魚類品種、時間及溫度的控制。

💡營養師提提您

含雪卡毒素的魚的內臟及生殖器的毒素含量較其他部位可高出50至100倍,因此毒素極具耐熱性,故不能透過烹煮或加工過程消除。

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【Naturally Occurring Seafood Toxins】

It is often heard that seafood contains toxins, especially shellfish. Where does it actually come from and why is this?


As filter-feeders and naturally ingest toxic algae in water, bivalve mollusks act as “common vehicles” that are responsible for the natural accumulation of algal toxins. This includes clams, mussels, oyster and scallops, etc.


In addition, ciguatoxins bioaccumulate up the marine food chain, while herbivorous fish graze on toxic marine planktons in the coral reef, then are eaten by the larger carnivorous fish, and finally to humans.


A large proportion of histamine-forming bacteria are part of the natural microflora of the skin, gills and gut of freshly caught fish. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is synthesised by histamine-producing bacteria when multiplying, converting histidine that is naturally presented in fish in histamine. The level of histamine depends on the species of fish and time-temperature control.


💡Friendly reminder

Ciguatoxins can be 50-100 times more concentrated in the viscera and gonads of the fish, which is heat-stable and cannot be removed by cooking or processing.


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